Human coronaviruses were discovered in the 1960s. The earliest ones studied were from human patients with the cold, which were later named human coronavirus 229E and human coronavirus OC43.

 Other human coronaviruses that have been identified,

SARS-CoV in 2003

HCoV NL63 in 2004

HKU1 in 2005

MERS-CoV in 2012

SARS-CoV-2 in 2019

Most of those have involved serious respiratory tract infections.